Course: General Methods of Teaching (8601)
Semester: Autumn, 2020
ASSIGNMENT No. 1
Q. 1 Give answers to the following short questions.
i. Define teaching in more effective terms.
Teaching is one of the instruments of education and is a special function is to impart understanding and skill. The main function of teaching is to make learning effective. The learning process would get completed as a result of teaching. So, teaching and learning are very closely related.
Teaching is a process in which one individual teaches or instruct another individual. Teaching is considered as the act of imparting instructions to the learners in the classroom situation. It is watching systematically. Dewey:- considers it as a manipulation of the situation, where the learner will acquire skills and insight with his own initiation.
(1) H C Morrison:- Teaching is an intimate contact between the more mature personality and a less mature one.
(2) Jackson:- Teaching is a face to face encounters between two or more persons, one of whom ( teacher) intends to effect certain changes in the other participants ( students).
(3) J B Hough and James K Duncan:- Teaching is an activity with four phases, a curriculum planning phase, an instructing phase, and an evaluating phase.
This definition presents the organizational aspect by which we can describe and analyze the teaching process.
(4) N.L.Gage ( Democratic point of view ):- Teaching is interpersonal influence aimed at changing the behavior potential of another person.
(5) Clerk:- Teaching refers to activities that are designed and performed to produce in students behavior.
We can define teaching according to the following three viewpoints.
(c) Liassez faire.
According to this viewpoint-
- Teaching is an activity of memory level only
- This teaching does not develop thoughts and attitude in the students.
- Is known as thoughtless teaching
- This teaching is teachers centric criticism of the teachers.
(b) Democratic teaching:-
According to this-
- Teaching is done at understanding level.
- Memory level teaching is the prerequisite (concept) is first memorized and then understand
- Such teaching is known as thoughtful teaching.
- According to this point of view, teaching is an interactive process, primarily involving classroom talks which takes place between teachers and student.
- Here students can ask questions and criticize the teachers.
- Here students can ask the questions and self-disciplined is insisted.
(c) Laissez Faire Attitude:-
- It is known as reflective level teaching.
- It is more difficult then memory level and understanding level of teaching.
- Memory level and understanding level teaching are must for the reflective level of teaching.
- It is highly thoughtful activity.
- In this level both students and teachers are participants.
- This level produces insights.
ii. What is conducive learning environment?
By definition, a conducive learning environment is a platform devoid of both physical intimidation and emotional frustration, which allows for a free exchange of ideas. The key proponents of the learning process are teachers and learners, as such their freedom of interaction, safety and respect should be equally guaranteed within the physical and emotive environment they find themselves in. The first port of learning is the physical environment, which includes, but is not limited to classrooms. The classroom should be neat, well ventilated and spacious to allow for free movement.
The chairs and desks should be arranged neatly to give the teacher a clear view of the class, with learners facing the chalkboard. All learning and teaching materials like chalks, books and charts should be at hand. The classroom should be safe to both the teacher and the learners. The smaller the classes, the more effective teacher pupil interaction is, and the more rewarding teaching becomes. Most learners also feel weighed down by larger numbers in classrooms. Emotions play a crucial role in both teaching and learning and therefore should be harnessed and embraced. Mutual respect is an indispensable ingredient in the recipe of learning, (Stronge: 2002; Wilen et al: 2004). A teacher who feels disrespected easily gets frustrated and is likely to deliver dismally; similarly a disrespected learner disengages himself/herself from the learning process. The learner should feel relaxed, respected, trusted, accepted and safe when his or her teacher is around. The teacher, therefore, should always be unintimidating, friendly, respectful, tolerant and accommodating for learners to warm up to him or her. He/she should be respected and not feared. Younger learners, especially the lower forms, tend to withdraw into their shells if the teacher exhibits aspects of intimidation and patronization. Under no circumstances should the teacher use disparaging remarks even to those physically or intellectually challenged, neither should he/she allow such remarks in the classroom. A marketer is quick to remind his customers that a good product sells itself, but its reputation is heightened through repackaging and constant advertising; and it is also indisputable that an experienced captain or pilot is a safety assurance to passengers. Credibility sells, thus the competent teacher should be aware that learners are not dullards, as they can easily discern mediocrity from excellence. The effectiveness of any learning method applied depends largely on the teacher and its worth is determined by results. If the results are always poor, then the trainer’s reputation dips, and the opposite is always true. His or her credibility both in deportment and delivery heightens reputation. As is the case with passengers on a plane, learners feel secure in hands they can trust, and that in itself regulates their behaviour and learning patterns. It is perilous therefore, for one to walk into a classroom clueless and ill prepared. Learning is an interaction of ideas whose effectiveness lies in the consideration of both the teacher and the learners as they all contribute to the outcome. The teacher may be the source of knowledge but is certainly not the only one, as learners also have access to other sources of information like textbooks, journals and the internet. In today’s globalised world the teacher should be the custodian of the knowledge that learners acquire as raw data elsewhere, guide them in the acquisition of such information and hone it, so that it becomes effective as academic knowledge.
iii. Write down the five merits off lesson planning.
Every teacher needs a carefully drawn lesson plan, irrespective of the training, experience or competency. A lesson plan is required to assist the students in achieving the learning objectives, on the short term and long term as well. Having a lesson is exactly like having a complete and clear picture of how a learning process is going to take place and how students are able to grasp and retain what is being taught to them.
A thorough lesson plan inspired the teacher to improve the lesson plan further. You can make it better for the purpose of achieving the lesson plan in a better way.
A lesson plan helps the teacher to evaluate his teaching and to compare it with set objectives. This evaluation will help you in achieving the set targets in a better way .
These lesson plans develops self-confidence in the teacher and make them to work towards definite goal.
4. Previous Knowledge of the Students
A teacher can take a proper care by considering the level and previous knowledge of the students in your class.
5. Organized Matter
A teacher will be able to finish a particular lesson in a limited time frame. This will help him or her to make the students learn a better and precise manner.
iv. Differentiate between inductive and deductive reasoning.
Reasoning in artificial intelligence has two important forms, Inductive reasoning, and Deductive reasoning. Both reasoning forms have premises and conclusions, but both reasoning are contradictory to each other. Following is a list for comparison between inductive and deductive reasoning:
- Deductive reasoning uses available facts, information, or knowledge to deduce a valid conclusion, whereas inductive reasoning involves making a generalization from specific facts, and observations.
- Deductive reasoning uses a top-down approach, whereas inductive reasoning uses a bottom-up approach.
- Deductive reasoning moves from generalized statement to a valid conclusion, whereas Inductive reasoning moves from specific observation to a generalization.
- In deductive reasoning, the conclusions are certain, whereas, in Inductive reasoning, the conclusions are probabilistic.
- Deductive arguments can be valid or invalid, which means if premises are true, the conclusion must be true, whereas inductive argument can be strong or weak, which means conclusion may be false even if premises are true.
The differences between inductive and deductive can be explained using the below diagram on the basis of arguments:
v. Enlist the limitations of activity method.
Advantages of Activity Based Instruction:
1) The most important feature of activity based instruction is learning by doing. So this method of instruction can fulfil the natural urge of a growing child on one hand also can help them learn their lesson.
2) The method also promotes better understanding of a lesson among students as they learn the lesson by practicing the task themselves.
3) It inspires the students to apply their creative ideas, knowledge and minds in solving problems as well as promoting competitive spirit among them.
4) It also helps learner psychologically as they can express their emotions through active participation in something useful.
5) The method also helps in developing their personalities, social traits and inter-personal management skills.
Disadvantages of Activity Based Instruction:
1) The activity based instruction method requires long-term planning with minute details of the whole process because before engaging the learners, the teacher has to make sure that all students have sufficient knowledge and skills regarding the task they are going to perform. So this method can not be used on a regular and daily basis as it involves a lengthy procedure.
2) The objectives of the method can only be fulfilled if the planning of the lesson is flawless. If there is slightest flaw in the planning, this method would do more harm than good.
3) Learners have varied levels of merit and understanding. So less meritorious students might not prepare for a task as other which might lead to failure of objectives of the whole process.
4) Many renowned educationists also are of the opinion that the activity based method is more suitable for branches of experimental sciences and less useful for subjects of social sciences.