519 Assignment no 1

Q.3      How different teaching methods are developed and also explain each method briefly. In your opinion, which method is suitable for the teaching of English? Build an argument with suitable examples.

Answer:

No two teachers are alike, and any teacher with classroom teaching experience will agree that their style of teaching is uniquely their own. An effective teaching style engages students in the learning process and helps them develop critical thinking skills. Traditional teaching styles have evolved with the advent of differentiated instruction, prompting teachers to adjust their styles toward students’ learning needs.

What are the different styles of teaching?

The following list of teaching styles highlights the five main strategies teachers use in the classroom, as well as the benefits and potential pitfalls of each respective teaching method.

Authority, or lecture style

The authority model is teacher-centered and frequently entails lengthy lecture sessions or one-way presentations. Students are expected to take notes or absorb information.

  • Pros: This style is acceptable for certain higher-education disciplines and auditorium settings with large groups of students. The pure lecture style is most suitable for subjects like history that necessitate memorization of key facts, dates, names, etc.
  • Cons: It is a questionable model for teaching children because there is little or no interaction with the teacher.

Demonstrator, or coach style

The demonstrator retains the formal authority role while allowing teachers to demonstrate their expertise by showing students what they need to know.

  • Pros: This style gives teachers opportunities to incorporate a variety of formats including lectures, multimedia presentations and demonstrations.
  • Cons: Although it’s well-suited for teaching mathematics, music, physical education, arts and crafts, it is difficult to accommodate students’ individual needs in larger classrooms.

Facilitator, or activity style

Facilitators promote self-learning and help students develop critical thinking skills and retain knowledge that leads to self-actualization.

  • Pros: This style trains students to ask questions and helps develop skills to find answers and solutions through exploration; it is ideal for teaching science and similar subjects.
  • Cons: Challenges teacher to interact with students and prompt them toward discovery rather than lecturing facts and testing knowledge through memorization.

Delegator, or group style

The delegator style is best-suited for curriculum that requires lab activities, such as chemistry and biology, or subjects that warrant peer feedback, like debate and creative writing.

  • Pros: Guided discovery and inquiry-based learning places the teacher in an observer role that inspires students by working in tandem toward common goals.
  • Cons: Considered a modern style of teaching, it is sometimes criticized as newfangled and geared toward teacher as consultant rather than the traditional authority figure.

Hybrid, or blended style

Hybrid, or blended style, follows an integrated approach to teaching that blends the teachers’ personality and interests with students’ needs and curriculum-appropriate methods.

  • Pros: Achieves the inclusive approach of combining teaching style clusters and enables teachers to tailor their styles to student needs and appropriate subject matter.
  • Cons: Hybrid style runs the risk of trying to be too many things to all students, prompting teachers to spread themselves too thin and dilute learning.

Because teachers have styles that reflect their distinct personalities and curriculum — from math and science to English and history — it’s crucial that they remain focused on their teaching objectives and avoid trying to be all things to all students.

What you need to know about your teaching style

Although it is not the teacher’s job to entertain students, it is vital to engage them in the learning process. Selecting a style that addresses the needs of diverse students at different learning levels begins with a personal inventory — a self-evaluation — of the teacher’s strengths and weaknesses. As they develop their teaching styles and integrate them with effective classroom management skills, teachers will learn what works best for their personalities and curriculum. Our guide encapsulates today’s different teaching styles and helps teachers identify the style that’s right for them and their students. Browse through the article or use these links to jump to your desired destination.

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Q.4      Compare four language skills with reference to learning a foreign language and also explain the two approaches of reading given by Brum Fit. Why both approaches need different classroom procedures?

Answer:

The purpose of language learning is to improve the speakers’ four skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing, with the base of large vocabulary and good grammar, but this is not the final purpose. The final purpose is to let speakers be able to use the language. For instance, why do people study English? If a man is only good at listening and speaking, can people say that he is good at English? No. If a woman is only good at reading and writing, can people say that she is good at the language? No. In addition, most of the speakers do better in reading and writing than in listening and speaking. They can read and write, but they can hardly communicate. They can hardly express themselves with their own words. We are not able to change the examination system, but we can improve our learning method. So when speakers want to use a language well, do not forget to know all the abilities of the four skills.

Listening, one of the means of language communication is used most widely in people’s daily lives. In addition, teaching the learners a lot of listening activities is a good way of enlargement their vocabulary. On the other hand, it also helps the learners improve their listening comprehension. For instance, people know that the largest difference between mother language learning and foreign language learning is the environment. For a foreign language, we can meet it only in formal places and classes. Training and practicing the oral reading is not a day’s work. Practice is important. Only through the practice can the learners improve their listening comprehension.

Next, Speaking is often connected with listening. For example, the two-way communication makes up for the defect in communicative ability in the traditional learning. Two-way means the relationship of the communication between the teacher and the students at school. This relationship is connected with the communicative activities between two people. It can create a fresh environment for speaking language. The two-way communication can lengthen the dialogue limitlessly. This is its advantage. At the same time, if the speakers want to give the correct response, he has to think hard, the sentence is not easily forgotten which is created by themselves through thinking, sometimes with the teacher’s hint. They can talk freely and express themselves as well as they can.

Next, Reading is an important way of gaining information in language learning and it is a basic skill for a language learner. There are a lot of reading exercises in an examination today. But all these readings must be done in limited time. So learners are asked to read them correctly and with a certain speed. For instance, someone reads word by word. Someone reads with his finger pointing to the words or with his head shaking. Those are all bad habits. They should read phrase by phrase. Do not blink eyes so often and shake head. Just move the eyeball. That is enough. If they want to get more word information, there must be a proper distance between their eyes and the reading material.

Finally, Writing is one way of providing variety in classroom procedures. It provides a learner with physical evidence of his achievements and he can measure his improvement. It helps to consolidate their grasp of vocabulary and structure, and complements the other language skills. Sentence is the base of an article. So he should begin his writing with sentences. For example, translation, sentence pattern exchanging, and text shortening and rewriting. It helps to understand the text and write compositions. It can foster the learner’s ability to summarize and to use the language freely.

Generally these four skills cannot be separated. People often say “First listening and speaking, then reading and writing.” But this way of saying is fit for the beginning stage. Before they are going to have a new lesson, do reading and writing first. So, training and practicing helps learners that raise their ability of language skills.

Two approaches of reading given by Brum Fit:

What is extensive reading? Reading has traditionally been divided into two types: intensive and extensive. In broad terms, intensive reading may be described as the practice of particular reading skills and the close linguistic study of text. Extensive reading, on the other hand, can be defined as reading a large quantity of text, where reading confidence and reading fluency are prioritised. Although this twin categorization of reading into two basic types can be found in many teacher resource books for the teaching of English as a foreign language (Grellet:1981, Nuttall:1982, for example), it is not the whole story, as the student’s learning history clearly pointed out. We need to extend the categorization. We can do this by adding, first, oral reading (Day:1993), or reading aloud in class, where considerable focus is put on correct pronunciation of the text – and, second, text translation, where correct translation of the foreign language text into the learners’ mother tongue is emphasized in tandem with the study of an array of grammatical, lexical and phonological points. This creates a four-way methodological categorization of reading in a foreign language, summarised in the following table.

            methodological choice                classroom focus
            Extensive                                            students read a lot of text

            Intensive                                             students practise particular reading skills

            oral reading                           students listen and read aloud

            text translation                                  students translate from L2 to L1

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Q.5      Why the substitution model is considered as an effective device for teaching of English? Give examples and also make a chart of pattern practice by using structures, phrases or idioms in your answer.

Answer:

A substitution table is when a teacher provides a table giving model sentences with a range of choices for learners to select from, using a set pattern. It is a very useful scaffolding resource which extends the speaking or writing skills of EAL learners and can be used as a reinforcement of newly acquired language. Substitution tables provide models for learners to practise target language and support the development of specific grammatical features within the context of the curriculum. They are motivating and generate a sense of achievement.

Substitution tables can be used to support talk and provide a scaffold which enables learners to speak or write in grammatically correct sentences. They are often used to provide an opportunity for independent work for learners who are new to English. However they can also be used by pairs or groups where they can encourage learners to develop and extend speaking and listening skills within the context of a curriculum topic and provide an opportunity for meaningful communication.

Types of activities using substitution tables

Substitution tables can be used:

  • to scaffold talk
  • to scaffold writing
  • to support development of a particular grammatical feature.

They can be made up of:

  • single words
  • a mixture of words and phrases
  • images
  • a mixture of words and images.

Practical ideas for using substitution tables

  • Top tip: Choose a language structure that is short, not too complex and commonly used in English  
  • To consider: Would it be enhanced by including visuals?
  • Activity: Substitution tables are laid out in a grid and the learner moves from left to right, making a selection in each column in order to construct a sentence. Cells could include words or phrases. These could also be accompanied by supporting visuals in order to support understanding.
  • Identify the language function: This means thinking carefully about what the language you want the learners to practise is for, e.g. describing, explaining, recounting, reporting, comparing.
  • Choose a simple language form that is commonly used in English: E.g. If the language function is comparing: (singular or plural noun) is/are (comparative adjective) than (singular or plural noun).
  • Provide visuals to support understanding particularly for younger learners.
  • Vocabulary:  Make sure the list of possible words they are choosing from is made up of useful curriculum-related vocabulary that you want the learners to practise.
  • Age range: Substitution tables can be used with any age group. Older learners can also develop their own substitution tables.

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